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Online Journal of Veterinary Research

(Including Medical and Laboratory Research)

Established 1994
ISSN 1328-925X


Volume 27 (3): 156-170, 2023.

Disposition of adenine, synephrine, osthole and nicotinamide in nettle extract


Sloan Ayers, Bill Roschek, John M Williams, Randall S Alberte


HerbalScience Group LLC., Naples FL 34110, USA




Ayers S, Roschek R, Williams JM, Alberte RS., Disposition of adenine, synephrine, osthole and nicotinamide in nettle extract, Onl J Vet Res., 27 (3): 156-170, 2023. We determined disposition of adenine, synephrine, osthole and nicotinamide in a nettle (Urtica dioica) extract lozenge in human volunteers. Average serum adenine reached 35.2, nicotinamide 8.7, osthole 11.0 and synephrine 107.4nmol/l equivalent to 0.3, 0.2, 0.2 and 1.6% oral bioavailability. Urine levels reached 4.9, 2.5, 6.6 and 0.2 nmol/l, respectively. Compared with serum concentrations, in urine, Cmax decreased 2-16 fold, Tmax increased 2-12 and T1/2 increased 2-10. Molecular modeling revealed that these compounds were not likely to cross the blood-brain barrier, particularly important for the anti-histamine bioactives to ensure a non-drowsy activity. These results show that anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic compounds in nettle are readily absorbed into the body and excreted in the urine when a nettle extract is delivered orally as a lozenge. In addition, DART TOF-MS is useful in quantifying multiple components in biological matrices with little or no sample preparation.


Key Words: Urtica dioica, nettle, allergies, inflammation, DART TOF-MS