2023-2035 All Rights Reserved. Online Journal of Veterinary Research. You may not store these pages in any form except for your own personal use. All other usage or distribution is illegal under international copyright treaties. Permission to use any of these pages in any other way besides the before mentioned must be gained in writing from the publisher. This article is exclusively copyrighted in its entirety to onlinejournals@gmail.com publications.. This article may be copied once but may not be, reproduced or re-transmitted without the express permission of the editors. Linking: To link to this page or any pages linking to this page you must link directly to this page only here rather than put up your own page.


Online Journal of Veterinary Research

(Including Medical and Laboratory Research)

Established 1994

ISSN 1328-925X


Volume 28(4): 216-225, 2024.

Urolithiasis in commercial layers given infectious bronchitis vaccines or high calcium diets.


M Shakeel Ahmed, Y Anjaneyulu, SV Rama Rao, M Lakhsman.


Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar and Project Directorate on Poultry, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.




Ahmed MS, Anjaneyulu Y, Rama Rao SV, Lakhsman M., Urolithiasis in commercial layers layers given infectious bronchitis vaccines or high calcium diets, Onl J Vet Res., 28(4): 216-225, 2024. Urolithiasis is an obstructive renal disorder causing sporadic or high mortality in birds. In two farms mortality started at 11-12 weeks and peaked by egg laying at 17-18 weeks. In one farm we found 234 cases of urolithiasis in 4000 birds (5.85%) and in other, 209 cases in 11500 (1.8%). From these we report clinical signs, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross and microscopical changes in groups of 10 layer birds with urolithiasis compared with 10 normal controls. Clinically, affected birds appeared dehydrated. Compared with controls, in birds with urolithiasis, packed cell volume increased (P > 0.05-0.001) 13-22%, hemoglobin 13-20%, red blood cells 7-10%, uric acid 69-83%, creatinine 70-77%, calcium 9-24% and phosphorus 23-40%. Gross lesions showed distended ureters with concretions, atrophy of lobes drained by obstructed ureters and hypertrophy lobes causing asymmetric kidneys and urate deposits on visceral organs. Microscopy revealed degeneration, sloughing of tubular epithelium, interstitial nephritis, urate crystals in parenchyma, fibrosis and plasma cells with PAS positive cytoplasm. We attribute urolithiasis in farm with 4000 to infectious bronchitis and in farm of 11500 birds to high calcium diets.


Key Words: Urolithiasis, commercial layers, hematology, biochemistry, gross lesions, microscopy.