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Online Journal of Veterinary Research©

Volume 23 (4):321-329, 2019.

Survey of Trichomonas gallinae isolates in pigeons by microscopy and PCR.


Layla Tahir Fadhil and Azhar Ali Faraj.


Department of Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad , Iraq.




 Fadhil LT, Faraj AA., Survey of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Co­lumba livia domestica) by microscopy and  PCR, Onl J Vet Res., 23 (4):321-329, 2019. Authors report presence of Trichomonas gallinae by PCR and Giemsa stain microscopy in pigeons located in Baghdad, Iraq. Pigeons (n=180) (Columba livia domestica) were examined from October 2018 to March 2019 and gender, age and monthly sampling recorded. Birds were swabbed from the oral cavity and then slaughtered for autopsy. T gallinae were confirmed by wet mount and Giemsa stain microscopy as motile, flagellated protozoa. For PCR, DNA from 100 oropharyngeal mucosa and crops of infected birds was collected on swabs. At autopsy, we found white-yellowish caseous masses in inflamed ulcerated oral cavities. By Giemsa stain microscopy we found prevalence of 58%(106/180) most in adults (66.98%, 71/126) whereas by PCR product of 370bp of ITS1/1.5.8S./ITS2 rRNA we found prevalence of 85%. There were no differences in gender but higher incidence in Spring compared with Winter. Phylogenic analysis revealed 6 sequences for Trichomonas isolates (GenBank MK418243.1, MK418241.1, MK418242.1, MK418257.1, MK418258.1 and MK418239). We report high incidence for Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons from Baghdad, Iraq.


Keywords: Trichomonas gallinae , pigeon, protozoa, phylogenetic tree, Iraq.