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Online Journal of Veterinary Research©

Volume 23 (11):1145-1152, 2019.

Effect of transfer factor on delayed hypersensitivity, macrophage migration,

 mortality and histopathology in fowl with Newcastle disease.


1Khalifa AK, 2Muhammad-Jawad M.


1College of Medicine, Anbar University, 2Veterinary Practitioner, Iraq



Khalifa AK, Muhammad-Jawad M., Effect of transfer factor on delayed hypersensitivity, macrophage migration mortality and histopathology in fowl with Newcastle disease, Onl J Vet Res., 23 (11):1145-1152, 2019. Transfer factor (TF) is a dialysis moiety from immune lymphocytes used to treat infection. Newcastle disease (NDV) causes high mortality in chickens. We sourced TF from spleen cells and cultured lymphocytes to activate chick lymphocytes In vitro and In vivo. In vitro we used macrophage migration inhibition (MIF) and In vivo delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) wattle and skin tests. We tested NDV infected chickens with transfer factors from anti-Newcastle immunized cells (TFS), non-immunized (TFN), vaccinated with Lasota strain and saline controls. TF or vaccine was given as 3 drops equivalent to 5x108 cell/ml intranasal and oral 0.1ml daily for 3 days. In those given TFS there were large increases (~34%) in bursae and wattle by 48 h. We found no difference with saline controls. Delayed DTH in birds given TFS was confirmed by marked MIF in 7/9 birds. However, 2/9 birds given TFN also exhibited MIF.  Saline controls and those given TFN all died from day 4 to 10 whereas only 1/7 vaccinated or chick given TFS died by day 10. At necropsy, bursae showed extensive hyperplasia of parafollicular lymphoid follicles and newly developed germinal centers in cortical and paracortical areas. In spleen there was extensive hyperplasia of peri-arteriolar sheath area with proliferation of lymphoid cells and red pulp T lymphocytes clearly differentiated. Our findings suggest TFS may induce immunity against NDV in fowl.


Key-Words: Transfer Factor, Immunity, Newscastle’s, Poultry.