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Online Journal of Veterinary Research

(Including Medical and Laboratory Research)

Established 1994

ISSN 1328-925X


Volume 28 (2): 90-97, 2024.

Anesthesia by ketamine-xylazine-diazepam with ketamine-xylazine-midazolamin tortoises (Testudo horsfieldi).


Amin Bigham-Sadegh


Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahreh-kord University, Shahreh-kord Iran.




Bigham-Sadegh S., Anesthesia by ketamine-xylazine-diazepam with ketamine-xylazine-midazolam in tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii). Onl J Vet Res., 28 (2): 90-97, 2024. Author reports anaesthesia by intramuscular midazolam-diazepam with ketamine-xylazine in 3 males and females tortoises weighing 1.09 0.34 kg. Tortoises received 30mg/kg ketamine -xylazine with 0.2mg/kg diazepam or 1.0mg/kg midazolam intramuscularly. Onset was 14% sooner (p=0.03) in those given ketamine-xylazine with diazepam (26.66.5 minutes) compared with ketamine-xylazine with midazolam (30.85.4 minutes) whereas ketamine-xylazine with midazolam (141.217.2 minutes) induced 51% longer (p=0.0001) anesthesia compared with ketamine-xylazine plus diazepam (68.816 minutes). All tortoises were calm during the period of recovery. No signs of excitement or myoclonic activity were seen in tortoises in our study. Recovery in all tortoises was uneventful. We find that blood sampling, biopsy specimens and surgical procedures are suitable by ketamine-xylazine with diazepam or midazolam anaesthesia for tortoises.


Key words: Ketamine, Xylazine, Diazepam, Midazolam, Tortoises.