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Online Journal of Veterinary Research

Volume 24(12): 716-722, 2020.

Ketamine-xylazine with diazepam or midazolam anesthesia in tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii).


Amin Bigham-Sadegh


Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahreh-kord University, Shahreh-kord Iran.




Bigham-Sadegh S Ketamine-xylazine with diazepam or midazolam anesthesia in tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii), Onl J Vet Res., 24(12): 716-722, 2020. In tortoises, turtles or terrapins effective short-term anesthesia is done for field biopsies. Author reports anesthetic effects of intramuscular injections of 30mg/kg ketamine 0.2mg/kg xylazine with 1mg/kg diazepam or 1mg/kg midazolam in 3 male and 3 female, 1.09 + 0.34kg central Asian tortoises. Onset and duration (min) of anesthesia were recorded. With diazepam onset occurred at ~27 min, whereas with midazolam at ~31 min (4.2% sooner P < 0.03). However, there was a great difference (~51%) in duration of deep anesthesia 141min with midazolam, compared with diazepam ~69min (P < 0.0001). Tortoises recovered normally. Results suggest ketamine-xylazine with midazolam can be given to tortoises for blood sampling, biopsies or surgery.


Key words: Ketamine, Xylazine, Diazepam, Midazolam, Tortoises.