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Online Journal of Veterinary Research


Volume 24 (1):7-14, 2020.

Summer versus Winter cardiac glycoside oleandrin leaf content.


Rana Abdulla Salih and Ali Aziz Alkhayyat


Department of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq.




Salih RA, Alkhayyat AA., Summer versus Winter cardiac glycoside oleandrin leaf content, Onl J Vet Res., 24 (1):7-14, 2020. Nerium oleander leaves were collected during July (Summer) and January (Winter). Organic solvent soluble extract of N. oleander yielded 50 grams dried powder by soxhlet extraction, percolation at 70 C for 72 hours to yield 10mg. We found the ratio of extract to leaf powder weight ~4% at Winter and ~8% at Summer being pasty dark green in Winter and crystalline light green in Summer. At dissolution in propylene glycol the extracts appeared dark yellow in Summer and green in Winter. By HPLC we found 0.8 mg Winter and 0.2 mg oleandrin/1g in Summer leaf samples with a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.98. These differences may be due to higher levels of nonpolar components in Winter paste samples compared with summer crystalline ones. Differences in color were probably due to chlorophyll content. Our findings suggest that high temperatures in summer may reduce glycosides in this plant.


Key word: Nerium oleander, Glycoside, Leaf, Winter, Summer, HPLC.