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Online Journal of Veterinary Research


Volume 26 (5): 344-351, 2022.

Evolution of lateral gene transfer in pathogenic microbial Biofilm


Nidhi Mathur, Ravneet Chug


Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Rajasthan.




Mathur N, Chug R., Evolution of lateral gene transfer in pathogenic microbial biofilm, Onl J Vet Res., 26 (5): 344-351, 2022. Biofilms are polymers secreted by microbes which form densely colonies to grow on living or inert surfaces. About 60-80% human infections involve biofilm microbes. We extracted 16s rRNA gene sequences of 17 human pathogenic biofilm bacteria from GenBank. For quorum sensing, bacteria to sustain environment with autoinducer and transporter proteins we retrieved sequences from Swiss-Prot [19] finding only 12 bacteria producing these proteins. Sequences were aligned for phylogenetic analysis and tree with Phylip-Protml. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Legionella spp, Staphylococcus spp and Alteromonas spp common evolutionary tree nodes with Legionella pneumophila being its oldest ancestor. Lineage associated with adhesion, toxicogenesis and autoinduction proteins in 12 of 17 bacteria evolved earliest in Salmonella spp and hemolytic toxin in Salmonella spp. Lateral gene transfer was deduced by the patchy scattered phylogenetic tree.


Key-words: Biofilms, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis, toxicogenesis,16s rRNA.