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 Online Journal of Veterinary Research

  Volume 23 (1):40-49, 2019.

Clinical and physiological effects of ketamine with xylazine or diazepam on pigeons (Columba livia domestica).


Soroush Sabiza, Hadi Naddaf.


Department of clinical sciences, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran




Sabiza S, Naddaf H., Clinical and physiological effects of ketamine with xylazine or diazepam on pigeons (Columba livia domestica), Onl J Vet Res., 23(1):40-49, 2019. Authors report effects of 30mg/kg Ketamine with 8mg/kg Xylazine IM (KX) or 60mg/kg Ketamine with 2mg/kg Diazepam (KD) on clinical, cardiorespiratory and electro-radiographic parameters in two groups of 10 pigeons each. Parameters were measured before and 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after induction of anaesthesia. We found no significant difference in onset, duration and recovery of anaesthesia and muscle relaxation between treatments. KX produced anaesthesia for 70 and KD for 55 minutes (P > 0.05). Opisthotonos was less frequent in pigeons given KX (median 0.5(0-2)) compared with KD (median 2(1-2)) (p=0.003). Pedal reflex score was lower in those given KX at 10-60min (p=0.01) after induction but there were no significant differences in muscle relaxation or palpebral reflex. Heart rate decreased after induction in both groups (p<0.05) but was 24-54% lower in those given KX. SpO2 was lower in pigeons given KX 5, 15 and 30 min after induction (p<0.05). Respiratory rates (RR) were much lower after 30min in those given KX (41-62%) compared with KD (p<0.05). Etco2 increased after induction in both groups in a similar fashion. Cloacal temperature decreased in both treatments (p<0.05) but was lower in those given KX at 45 and 90 minutes after induction (-7.5 to -11%). The only beneficial effect of the KX was analgesia. In pigeons given KX, P and T amplitudes were lower and QRS duration longer than normal ranges. Ketamine given with Xylazine or Diazepam are comparable despite different analgesia and heart rate. However our results suggest that pigeons are at less anaesthetic risk using Ketamine and Diazepam (60 and 2 mg/kg, respectively) than Ketamine and Xylazine (30 and 8 mg/kg, respectively)


Keywords: Electrocardiogram, cardiorespiratory, anaesthesia, pigeon, Raw data provided.