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Online Journal of Veterinary Research©

Volume 23 (6):606-614, 2019.

Egg shell hydroxyapatite implant for repair of radial bone in rabbits.


Ali Ghazi Atiyah¹, Nadia Hameed AL-Falahi².


¹Department(s) of Surgery and Obstetrics, College(s) of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tikrit. ²University of Baghdad, Iraq.




Atiyah AG, AL-Falahi NH., Egg shell hydroxyapatite implant for repair of radial bone in rabbits, Onl J Vet Res., 23 (6):606-614, 2019. Hydroxyapatite sintered with avian eggshell powder was compressed for bone implant (HA) characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. HA consisted of ~35% calcium, ~23% phosphorus (Ca/P 1.56) and ~42% oxygen similar to pure hydroxyapatite. Then, in groups of 6-8 month ~1-1.8Kg male rabbits (n=15) a segmental defect of 5mm was created in the mid-shaft of the radius bone infilled by HA implant. Controls (n=15) were not implanted. An external splint was applied on operated limbs on rabbits for 4 weeks, sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks for bone samples. Grossly, in implanted rabbits we found dense white tissue from 4 weeks adhering to defective ends which then became bone from the periphery and over the whole implant by 12 weeks.  In contrast, in controls 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, we observed less (rounded) bone at both ends of the defect but the center filled by fibrous connective tissue. Scanning Electron Microscopy done before implant showed crystals as agglomerates of spherical irregular particles with 10-50 μm pores whereas 3 months we observed hematopoietic cells in direct contact with the rough surface of the implant which enlarged together with dissolution of the eHA particles. We found no infection or rejection in any rabbit but 2 controls had fractured ulnas supporting body weight without splints.


Keywords: Eggshell, hydroxyapatite, bone implant, healing, rabbit.