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Online Journal of Veterinary Research©

 Volume 24(10): 578-583, 2020.

Fresh versus thawed sperm characteristics from Holstein bulls taken during cool and warm seasons.


¹Qusay Mohammed Aboud, ¹Saad Akram Hatif , ²Faris Faisel  Ibrahim,

²Wafa’a Yeedam Lateef, 2Omar Adel Mohammad


¹Surgery and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad; ²Ministry of Agriculture, Artificial Insemination Center-Baghdad.




Aboud QM, Hatif SA,  Ibrahim FF, Lateef WY, Mohammad OA., Fresh versus thawed sperm characteristics from Holstein bulls taken during cool and warm seasons in Iraq, Onl J Vet Res., 24(10): 578-583, 2020. We report fresh and thawed sperm characteristics from 160 ejaculates collected from fifteen 4-5 year Holstein bulls by artificial vagina during December (~12C), January (~9C), February (~10C), March (~11) and September (~35C). We evaluated semen motility, death and abnormalities in fresh and thawed samples. Compared with the cooler months we found decreased motility (~-17%) but increased mortality (~24%) and abnormal ~10% spermatozoides in fresh samples collected in the warmer month of September. In thawed samples these values were similar ~-15%, ~18% and 8 % respectively. Our results suggest high sensitivity of fresh sperm to high ambient temperatures with lower temperatures favoring semen quality.


Keywords: Season, collection, Bull semen, Viability, Motility, Abnormal.