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Online Journal of Veterinary Research

(Including Medical and Laboratory Research)

Established 1994
ISSN 1328-925X


Volume 27 (5): 273-279, 2023.

Effects of epidural buprenorphine with bupivacaine, xylazine or ketamine in dogs.


Sharma YK, Pandey SS, Pandey SK


Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Health, Mpow, India.




Sharma YK, Pandey SS, Pandey SK, Epidural effects of buprenorphine with or without bupivacaine, xylazine and ketamine in dogs, Onl J Vet Res 27 (5) : 273-279, 2023. Groups of 6 dogs each were given 0.04mg/kg intramuscular (IM) atropine sulphate IM 20 min before 0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine with 1mg/kg bupivacaine (BB), 0.75mg/kg xylazine (BX) or 3mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride (BK) at lumbosacral junction. We found that BK delayed onset time for analgesia by ~34-42% but boosted recovery time ~30% compared with BB or BX (P < 0.05). However, Xylazine increased recovery time by ~10%. Pulse rate declined ~10-15% (P < 0.05) between 20 to 90 min after BB or BX treatments but increased ~9-18% with ketamine (BK) during that time. Heart rate declined ~8-16% (P < 0.05) from 10 to 120 min in dogs injected BB or BX reaching minimums by 45min but with ketamine increased ~10-18% (P < 0.05) from 5 to 90 min reaching maximum by 10 min. Respiratory rates fell ~14-42% (P < 0.05) with epidural BB or BX injections from ~5 to 180min but with ketamine increased ~25-65%. We found respiratory rates fell ~14-42% (P < 0.05) with epidural BB or BX injections from ~5 to 180min but with ketamine increased ~25-65%. Epidural buprenorphine with bupivacaine (BB), xylazine (BX) and ketamine (BK) reduced body temperatures ~3-4% in dogs between ~10-180 min. Our results suggest that because buprenorphine is bound to opiate receptors in the spinal cord for a longer period it may prolonged analgesia compared with xylazine or ketamine.


Key words: Epidural, buprenorphine, bupivacaine, xylazine, ketamine, dogs.