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Online Journal of Veterinary Research  

(Including Medical and Laboratory Research)

Established 1994

ISSN 1328-925X


Volume 28 (1): 50-55, 2024.

Bacterial contamination in medication vials in dairy and poultry farms in Sudan.


Hytham EY Omer, Elhassan MA Saed.


1Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries, 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.




Omer H, Saed E., Bacterial contamination in medication vials in dairy and poultry farms in Sudan, Onl J Vet Res., 28 (1): 50-66, 2024. Prevalence of aerobic bacteria in multiple-dose veterinary medication vials from 99 of 14 injectable and non-injectable drugs from 13 dairy and 5 poultry farms were investigated. Of 66 parenteral and 33 non-parenteral open multiple-dose preparations, 36 were by 41 isolates, with 2 isolates obtained from each of 5 samples. 24% parenteral samples were contaminated whereas 60% non-parenteral samples were. Of the 9 isolates, 7 were Gram-positive with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%), Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (8%), Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Neisseria mucosa, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1-5%). B. cereus, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were isolated from both dairy and poultry farms and from parenteral and non-parenteral preparations with similar prevalence. Level of contamination and hygiene were associated but difference was found between poultry and dairy farms.


Key words: Bacterial contamination, multiple-dose veterinary medication vials, dairy, poultry farms.